It is amazing how one, small gland can play such a huge role in the body, influencing the function of many of the body’s most important organs, including the heart, brain, liver, kidneys and skin. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in the base of the neck just below the Adam’s apple. It produces the hormones necessary to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and metabolism. When the thyroid isn’t functioning properly or is removed, those areas suffer. The most common reason for thyroid removal is thyroid cancer.